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戴斌:重新发现旅行的美好:戏剧场到菜市场
第一旅游网:www.toptour.cn      发布时间:2019-10-16      字号:【

  2019年10月13-15日,由澳门特区政府社会文化司主办的“2019世界旅游经济论坛”在中国澳门举办。戴斌院长应邀出席并做主题演讲“重新发现旅行的美好:戏剧场到菜市场”。全文如下:

  女士们,先生们,

  在刚刚过去的国庆七天长假中,中国内地共接待了国内游客7.82亿人次,实现国内旅游收入6497.1亿元人民币,分别同比增长7.81%和8.47%。在中央电视台新闻联播的画外解说中,有这么一句话:博物馆、美术馆、图书馆、戏剧场已经成为主客共享的美好生活新空间。在权威平台、黄金时段播发旅游新闻时提到“戏剧场”这个词,对于中央电视台还是第一次。事实上,无论是长安大戏院的京剧、国家大剧院的芭蕾舞剧,还是儿童艺术剧院的木偶戏,观众席中来自京外和海外的游客都是越来越多。我还注意到,为了适应都市旅游的发展需求,杭州面向入境游客发布了100个社会资源访问点,其中古荡菜市场稳居第二大最受欢迎的项目。日本的筑地、西班牙的波盖利亚、新加坡的牛车水、北京的三源里等菜市场和集市,这几年也都变成国际游客愿意到访的景点。如果说地标景点是城市旅游的形象支撑,市井集市则是城市品质的生活内涵。当游客广泛进入从戏剧场到菜市场的日常生活空间,深度体验并共享目的地的美好生活,我仿佛听见了横亘在本地市民和外来游客之间的“无形之墙”轰然倒塌的声音。旅游逐渐打破旅行社、酒店、景区这个封闭的世界,开始搭建目的地生活空间的开放体系,一个主客共享美好生活的时代到来了。

  这个时代是经济社会发展到一定阶段的必然结果,也是文化事业的存量积淀和文化产业培育的必然结果。新中国成立70年来,博物馆事业发生了历史性变革。博物馆数量从1978年的349家增长到2018年5170家,年举办展览2万余场、教育活动20万次,参观人数超过10亿人次。2018年,美团点评的数据表明,通过博物馆搜索国内旅游目的地、线路和产品数量同比增长了50%。故宫博物院、国家博物馆,以及陕西、南京、安徽、山东等地的博物馆已经成为文化、研学、教育等主题旅游线路的经典项目。长城、古钱币、铁道、邮电等小众博物馆也逐渐成为游客的打卡地。

  中国的集市和菜市场,特别是大城市的生鲜、蔬菜和水果市场也逐渐改变过去“进去两腿泥,出来一身腥”的传统形象,成为市民生活品质升级的基础支撑和游客深度体验的选择项目。中国旅游研究院的专题调查显示:《北京遇上西雅图》的取景地派克市场,每年吸引了100多万游客到访。荷兰鹿特丹的Markthal缤纷菜市场,一年人流多达800万。日本的筑地市场每天有近4.2万游客进入,成为海外游客到访日本必去的打卡地。新鲜、湿润、生动,浓缩市井民情和生活百态的菜市场,有效满足了旅游经验日益丰富的游客对当地日常生活、饮食文化、质朴社交和别样美好生活的体验诉求。用科幻语言来说,菜市场就是连接旅游世界和生活世界的“虫洞”,让游客瞬间从景区穿越到本地人的日常生活场景。这里为当地居民提供新鲜食材、美味餐饮,为游客展示了当地本色生活和质朴社交。我注意到,现在慕名到访澳门的红街市的游客越来越多了。那里不仅是老百姓买菜做饭的地方,更是游客认知澳门、品尝澳门,打卡澳门的新天地。

  无论我们如何强调自然和历史文化遗产的独特性,都不得不承认这样一个现实:没有哪一项资源是不可替代的,只有植入当代人的生活方式,城市、乡村和社区才是独特的。随着经济社会的发展和旅行经验的丰富,人们的旅游诉求正在从景区的美丽风景转向社区的美好生活。在连续四十多个季度的游客满意度监测的基础上,借助于大数据分析技术,我们先后提出了“景观之上是生活”“人的连接是最好的旅行”“繁华不只为追忆”等当代旅游发展理念。这些理念也正在为洛杉矶会议和旅游局推出的“小产品”项目所映证:看上去是城市休闲小产品,实际上是国际旅游大市场和产业发展新趋势。广州岭南集团开发建设的岭南五号文化主题酒店、岭居服务公寓和南沙大酒店等项目,则让那些承载了历史人文记忆的场所和空间,成为城市生活的新地标。事实上,世界一流的旅游目的地也必须有世界级的文化地标和包括菜市场在内的高品质生活环境。

  女士们、先生们,

  希望旅游目的地营销推广机构更加重视从戏剧场到菜市场等都市生活和休闲空间,而不是重复叙说那些山山水水的空镜头和已然逝去的旧辉煌。旅游当然有拉动经济增长、扩大就业、减少贫困和国民教育的功能,但是这些功能的实现是以游客到访为前提的。游客为什么要来到某个城市和乡村,是因为这里可以让他们享受品质生活和花样年华。由是作出发,旅游首先得让人亲而近之,而不是敬而远之。今天,80后、90后,甚至00后都已经进场,并正在成为旅游消费的引导者,他们需要目的地形象、服务和产品与自己有情感投射和心理联系。否则,旅游形象建设和宣传推广就会陷入“我们说我们的,他们想他们的”折叠空间。家国天下和人间烟火都是建立目的地与游客情感投射和心理联系的有效路径,而对于新生代的游客群体而言,后者更为重要。从《舌尖上的中国》《中餐厅》到《遇见天坛》,这一趋势已经很明显了。值此中国全面建成小康社会,旅游业走向高质量发展的今天,更应当深刻理解和把握旅游需求的演化。如果认同并践行“人民对美好生活的向往就是我们的奋斗目标”,就要下更多的力气去研究旅游需求,研究远方的市场,而不仅是所谓的旅游资源。

  希望旅游目的地开发和管理更加重视存量资源的整合与提升,而不是一味地做增量投资。对于很多人而言,发展旅游就是开发景区,就是建设主题公园,投资酒店、度假村、购物中心。对于澳门这样经济发达,国土空间有限的都市,更要以主客共享美好生活的理念,发展高质量的全域旅游,让世界各地的游客到此感受无所不在的品质。大有大的美,小有小的好。问题是现在对大美强调得多,规划都是大手笔,投资都是大项目。现实吗?反正也不用掏自己的钱,忽悠来忽悠去,把旅游和文化都弄得心浮气燥的。经过二十年资本的攻城略地和互联网的高歌猛进,现在是强调质量、效益,以及游客与社区获得感的时候了,也是强调“人间烟火”“小也是美”的时候了。不能一提主题公园就是迪士尼、环球影城和海洋世界,也不能一提博物馆、美术馆就是卢浮宫和古根海姆,要关注根植于市民休闲需求,可以主客共享的亲子乐园、动漫博物馆、民间美术馆。事实上,以洛宝贝亲子乐园、木木美术馆为代表的新兴力量,已经成为年轻人的休闲新空间和旅游打卡地。

  希望城市管理者把游客和市民放在同等重要的位置,让游客自由而便利地共享本地市民的品质生活和公共服务。好的城市要经得起游客的寻常打量,让外来游客和本地市民一样可以获得高质量的公共服务和商业环境。发展夜间旅游,需要灯光秀和夜市,也需要博物馆、美术馆、图书馆和公共文化中心延长营业时间,更需要政府在公共服务方面增加投入。因为本地居民的高频消费和生活方式的同一性,为市民提供的公共服务会有更高的效率。而为外来游客提供多语言环境、互联网接入、安全保障、公共区域管理方面的公共服务时,则面临着高成本、低效率的考验。当旅游者过多或者出现“过度旅游”情况时,还会导致目的地物价上涨、交通拥挤、犯罪率上升等影响旅游业可持续发展的后果。在刚刚过去的这个国庆节七天长假里,重庆公安局一则群发短信刷屏了网络社交圏:国庆假日期间,解放碑、洪崖洞、朝天门、大剧院、长嘉汇等旅游景点人员密集。建议本市朋友们错峰出行,为市外游客提供浏览方便。在为“耿直”的重庆人点赞的同时,我也在思考这条短信背后的理念、制度及其向其它城市复制推广的可能性。

  希望加强更加广泛的国际合作,经由理念共识和政策协调,共商共建共享高质量发展的旅游成果。多年以来,旅游部门愿意并擅长于在双边和多边框架下讨论旅游的问题,取得了唤醒旅游权利、消除旅游障碍、建设旅游设施、协调旅游政策等有目共睹的成就。除了积极参与联合国世界旅游组织(UNWTO)、世界旅游与旅行理事会(WTTC)和亚太旅游协会(PATA)等国际旅游组织的各项事务外,旅游部门还努力推动中央政府在“一带一路”峰会、亚洲文明对话、上海合作组织等多边合作机制中设置旅游议题。由中国发起成立的世界旅游联盟(WTA)、世界旅游城市联合会(WTCF)等旅游组织也开展了大量卓有成效的工作。当旅游者开始进入戏剧场和菜市场所代表的本地居民日常生活空间,游客和市民的界限开始变得模糊,医院、海关、移民、教育等机构也具有越来越明显的旅游属性的时候,怎么办?一个思路是扩大国际旅游组织的职责和双边旅游合作的内容,就像中国在发展全域旅游早期所做的包括成立旅游委员会在内的行政努力。另一个思路是跨界对话和产业融合,就像过去两年中国在文化和旅游融合发展方面所做的创新。毕竟对于那些“资产专用性”很强的领域,旅游行政部门和商业机构没有办法也没有必要进入,把它们改造成为旅游机构。现在需要做的是在包括世界旅游经济论坛的平台上,吸纳移民、海关、文化、教育、科技、商业、农业等领域的国际组织代表、政府官员和企业家代表共同参与。经由对话,寻求共识,让掌握行政权力、专业信息和社会影响力的机构和个人更好地为国际旅游者服务。中国旅游研究院最近正在与海关总署卫生司、保险业协会、联合国开发计划署、携程旅游集团进行跨领域的深度合作,努力为游客提供更多的安全保障。

  女士们、先生们,

  受何超琼秘书长的邀请,我有幸参加了世界旅游经济论坛创建以来的历次年会,与巴西旅游部长、阿根廷旅游局长等海内外的业界同仁广泛交流了中国和世界旅游的看法。在这个论坛上,我还代表旅游智库机构和学术界,分别就世界旅游休闲中心建设、粤港澳大湾区旅游发展、澳门品质生活和花样年华的全球推广等主题发表了主题演讲。

  把中国澳门建设成世界旅游休闲中心当然要吸引世界各地的游客到访,但是不能盯着到访的外国人有多少,内地游客有多少。更不必把有多少外国人到访作为发展目标,或者世界旅游休闲中心的必须要达到的硬性指标,中央政府也没有这个要求。中国内地已经是全球最大的出境旅游客源市场,加上粤港澳大湾区城市群的建设和港珠澳大桥的通车,内地更应当也必须成为澳门要紧紧抓住的客源市场。事实上,世界旅游休闲中心,不在于多少国际客源和传统的旅游资源,关键是要有从戏剧场到菜市场的美好生活空间和世界一流的旅游设施和休闲服务。衷心希望澳门社会各界在新发展理念的指引下,早日实现世界旅游休闲中心的战略目标,为内地旅游产业和国民休闲的高质量发展提供可复制可推广的澳门样本。

  谢谢!

  Rediscovering the Beauty of Travel: FromTheatres to Vegetable Markets

  - Speech atGlobal Tourism Economic Forum

  (October 14, 2019, Macao)

  By Dai Bin, President of China Tourism Academy

  Ladies and gentlemen,

  During the golden-week holiday for the National Day, the Chinese hinterland saw 782 million domestic touristtrips and a total domestic tourism revenue of 649.71billion yuan, up 7.81% and 8.47% respectively from last year’sholiday. According to the voiceover of the CCTV’s Xinwen Lianbo, museums, art galleries, libraries and theaters have constituted new spaces for a wonderful life shared by both localsand tourists. It is the first time that theater was mentioned in the tourismnews of the authoritative CCTV at peaktime. In fact, the Beijing opera of Chang’an Grand Theater, the ballet of the National Centre for the Performing Arts and the puppetshow of China National Theatre for Children are attracting more and more tourists from other places and foreign countries. I have also noticed that, inorder to meet the development needs of urban tourism, Hangzhou has publicized 100 social resource access spots for the inboundtourists. Among them, Gudang Vegetable Market remains the second largestpopular item. Some vegetable markets and bazaars, including Tukijisij you in Japan, Boqueria Market in Spain, Chinatown in Singapore and Sanyuanli in Beijing have become attractions for international tourists. The landmark attractions are image support of urban tourism, while markets and bazaars show the quality of life in a city. When tourists enter the daily life spaces from theaters to vegetable markets to deeply experience andshare the good life of the destination, I seem to have heard the collapse of the “invisible wall” standing between locals and tourists. The closed tourist world of travel agencies, hotels and scenic spots has been gradually broken, and an open system involving the living spaces of the destination has taken shape, ushering in the era of wonderful life shared by both locals and tourists.

  This era is the inevitable result of the economic and social development to a certain stage as well as the accumulation of cultural under takings and the cultivation of cultural sectors. In the past seven decades since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the museum industry has undergone historic changes. The number of museums increased from 349 in 1978 to 5,170 in 2018. There are more than 20,000 exhibitions and 200,000 educational events held every year, with over one billion visitors. According to the data of dianping.com, the number of tourists searching fordomestic attractions, routes and products via museum increased by 50% in 2018. The Palace Museum, National Museum of China, and museums in Shaanxi, Nanjing, Anhui and Shandong have become classic items of the cultural, research and educational tourist routes. Small museums, such as those of the Great Wall, ancient coins, railways, and post and telecommunications, have gradually become the must-go destinations for tourists.

  The bazaars and vegetablemarkets in China, especially fresh food, vegetable and fruit markets in big cities, have gradually changed the traditional image of “having two legs smeared withmud after entering it and smelling fishy all over the body after coming out ofit,” becoming the basic support for the upgrading of the quality of citizens’life and the selected items for deep experience of tourists. According to aspecial survey conducted by China Tourism Academy, the Pike Place Market, a shooting spot of “Anchoring in Seattle”, attracts more than one million tourists every year. The Markthal Rotterdam in the Netherlands isvisited by over eight million people every year. Japan’s Tukijisijyou attracts nearly 42,000 tourists every day, making it a must-go destination for overseas visitors to Japan. The fresh, wet and lively vegetable market that reflects the local daily life effectively meets the demand of tourists with increasingly rich travel experiences to experience local daily life, cuisine, simple social contact and distinctive beautiful life. In terms of science fiction language, the vegetable market is a “wormhole” that connects travel and life, enabling tourists to instantly travel from the scenic spot to the daily life of locals. Here, local residents are provided with fresh ingredients and delicious food, and visitors can learn about the local life and simple social communication. I have noticed that there are more and more tourists visiting the red market in Macao. It not only provides locals with vegetables, but also enables tourists to appreciate and taste Macao.

  No matter how we emphasize the uniqueness of natural, historical and cultural heritage, we have to admit that there is no such a resource that is irreplaceable. Only by embedding the lifestyle of the contemporary people, cities, villages and communities can become unique. With the economic and social development and accumulation of travel experience, people’s travel appeals are shifting from the beautiful scenery of scenic spots to the wonderful life of communities. Based on the monitoring of tourist satisfaction for more than 40 consecutive quarters and with the help of big data analysis technology, we have proposed “the life beyond landscape,” “the communication between people as the best travel,”“prosperity not only for recollection”and other contemporary tourism development concepts. These concepts are also being demonstrated by the “small product” project launched by Los Angeles Convention & Visitors Bureau: they appear to be small urban leisure products but actually form a new trend of the international tourism market andindustry development. The LN Hotel Five, LN Residence and Nansha Grand Hotel, which were built by Lingnan Group in Guangzhou, have made the historical andcultural places and spaces new landmarks of urban life. In fact, theworld-class destinations must also have world-class cultural landmarks and high-quality living environments, including vegetable markets.

  Ladies and gentlemen,

  It is hoped that the marketing agencies of tourism destinations pay more attention to urban livingand leisure spaces from theatres to vegetable markets, rather than repeating the empty shots of landscapes and the old glory that has passed away.Tourismis bound to function in driving economic growth, creating more jobs, reducing poverty and carrying out national education, but the realization of these functions is based on the premise of tourists’ visit. Why do tourists come to acertain city or village? Because they can enjoy quality life and youth. To thisend, any attraction must, first and foremost, be close to people, instead of keeping them at a distance. Nowadays, the post-80s, post-90s,and even post-00s have entered the markets, becoming the guides of tourism consumption. They need the destinations’ images, services and productsto have emotional projections and psychological connections with them. Otherwise, tourism image building and promotion won’t strike a chord with tourists. Patriotism and daily life are effective factors to establish emotional projections and psychological connections between destination and tourists. For the new generation, the latter is more important. From “A Bite of China” to “Chinese Restaurant” and to “Meet the Temple of Heaven,” this trend is already obvious. On the basis of the fact that China has built a well-off society in an all-round way and the tourism industry has embarked on the road of high-quality development, it is necessary to profoundly understand and graspthe evolution of tourism demands. If we recognize and practice the principle that “people’s longing for a better life is our goal,” we must do more to study tourism demands and the distant market instead of the so-called tourism resources.

  It is hoped that tourism destinations will attach more importance to theintegration and promotion of the resources in stock, rather than makingincremental investments. For many people, tourismdevelopment is to develop scenic spots, that is, to build theme parks, andinvest in hotels, resorts and shopping centers. As for Macao, a city with adeveloped economy and limited land space, it is necessary to develophigh-quality all-for-one tourism with the concept of wonderful life shared by bothlocals and tourists, so that visitors from all over the worldcan feel the ubiquitous quality. Both big and small cities have their ownunique beauty. The problem is that, due to the stress on magnificent beauty,the planning is comprehensive, and investment is made in large projects. Is itpractical? Anyway, no private investment is made. As a result, tourism andcultural development becomes superficial. After 20 years of capital input andthe rapid Internet development, it is time to emphasize quality, efficiency,and the sense of gain of tourists and communities. It is also time to emphasizedaily life and small beauty. It is not advisable to mention only Disney, Universal Studios and Sea World as well as Louvre Museum and Guggenheim Museumwhen speaking of theme parks, museums and art galleries. It is necessary to payattention to the parent-child parks, animation museums and folk art galleriesthat meet citizens’ demand for leisure and can be shared by tourists with thelocals. In fact, the emerging forces represented by Luobaobei Parent-child Park and M Woods have become new leisure spaces andmust-go destinations for young people.

  It is hoped that city managers will place tourists and citizens in an equally important position so as to enable tourists to freely and conveniently share the quality life and public services of local citizens. A good city can with stand the usual visits of tourists, so that tourists can get the same high quality public service and business environment as local citizens. The development of night tourism requires light shows and night markets. It also requires museums, artgalleries, libraries and public cultural centers to extend business hours. What’s more important, it also requires the government to increase investment in public services. Because of the high frequency consumption and similar lifestyles of local residents, the public services provided to the public will be more efficient. When providing tourists with multi-language environment, Internet access, security, and public area management, they face the test of high cost and low efficiency. When there are too many tourists or “excessive tourism” occurs, there will be the consequences of rising prices, traffic congestion and higher crime rate that affect the sustainable development of tourism. In the past seven days of National Day holiday, the Chongqing Municipal Public Security Bureau sent a public text message, which became popular in the social network. It reads: “During the National Day holiday, the tourist attractions such as Jiefangbei, Hongya Cave,Chaotianmen, Grand Theatre and Changjiahui are quite crowded, so citizens in this city are recommended to avoid the peak hours when going out so as to provide convenience for visitors.” While praising the honest and frank Chongqing people, I am also thinking about the concept and system behind thistext message and the possibility of copying and promoting it in other cities.

  It is also hoped to strengthen more extensive international cooperation, and jointly build and share the tourism achievements of high-quality development based on concept consensus and policy coordination. Over the years, the tourism sectors have been willing to and adept at discussing tourism issues in a bilateral and multilateral framework, and achievedre markable achievements in awakening tourism rights, removing barriers to tourism, building tourism facilities, and coordinating tourism policies. In addition to actively participating in various events of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) and other international tourism organizations, the tourism sectors also strive to promote the Central Government to initiate tourism topics in the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, Conferenceon Dialogue of Asian Civilizations, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and other multilateral cooperation mechanisms. The tourism organizations launched by China, such as the World Tourism Alliance (WTA) and World Tourism Cities Federation (WTCF), have also carried out a lot of fruitfu lwork. When tourists begin to enter the daily life spaces of local residents represented by theaters and vegetable markets, the boundaries between touristsand local citizens become blurred, and hospitals, customs, immigration and education institutions also feature increasingly salient tourism attributes.What to do? One method is to increase the responsibilities of international tourism organizations and the content of bilateral tourism cooperation, just as China's administrative efforts made in the early days of developing all-for-one tourism, including the establishment of tourism committees. The other method is to conduct cross-border dialogues and industry integration,just like China’s innovations in the integrated development of culture andtourism over the past two years. After all, for those areas characterized by strong “asset specificity,” there is no way for tourism administrations and commercial organizations to enter and trans form them into tourism agencies. What needs to be done now is to attract representatives of international organizations, government officials and entrepreneurs in the fields of immigration, customs, culture, education, science and technology, commerce and agriculture, etc. onthe platforms such as the Global Tourism Economic Forum. It is advisable to seek consensus through dialogues and make institutions and individuals with administrative power, professional information and social influence better serve international tourists. China Tourism Academy is working in depth with the Department of Health of the General Administration of Customs, the Insurance Association of China, the United Nations Development Programme, and Ctrip Group to provide more security for tourists.

  Ladies and gentlemen,

  At the invitation of Secretary General Pansy Ho Chiu-king, I’m lucky to attend all previous annual conferences of the Global Tourism Economic Forum since its establishment. I have exchanged extensive views on the Chinese and world tourism with Brazilian tourism minister, Argentine tourism director general and other industry colleagues at home and abroad. At this forum, I have also delivered keynote speeches on the construction of the World Tourism and Leisure Center, the tourism development of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area,the quality life in Macao and the global promotion of the project “In the Moodfor Love” on behalf of tourism think tank institutions and academic circles.

  To build Macao into aworld tourism and leisure center,we should of course attract visitors from all over the world, but it is not to focus on the number of foreign visitors and hinterland tourists. It is unnecessary to set a target of attracting a certain number of foreigner visitors or other compulsory standards for the world tourism and leisure center. The Central Government also has no requirements in this regard. The Chinese hinterland has already been the largest outbound tourist source market in the world. With the construction of Guangdong-HongKong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the opening of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge,the hinterland should and must become a major tourist source market for Macao. In fact, the key points of aworld tourism and leisure center don’t lie in the number of international tourists and traditional tourism resources, but involve the wonderful living spaces from theatres to vegetable markets and the world-class tourism facilities and leisure services. I sincerely hope that Macao will realize the strategic goal of becoming a world tourism and leisure center earlier under the guidance of the new development concept, and provide a sample that can be replicated and promoted for the high-quality development of the hinterland tourism industry and national leisure.

  Thanks!














来源:中国旅游研究院 责任编辑:朱舒婷
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